Myongji University Microsystems Laboratory Directed by Prof. Sang Kug Chung

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2011.12.09 (12:59:49)

유럽입자물리연구소(CERN)가 2012년 7월 4일(현지시간) 호주 멜버른에서 열린 세계고에너지학회에서 ‘신의 입자’로 불리는 힉스 입자를 발견했다고 공식 발표했다. CERN에서 현재 힉스를 탐색하고 있는 ATLAS와 CMS란 두 팀이 이번에 새로 발견한 입자가 힉스일 가능성은 99.99932~99.99994%로 전해졌다. 힉스 입자를 확인했다는 것은 우주를 설명하는 유력한 이론인 표준모형이 실험으로 입증됐다는 의미다. 힉스 입자는 137억 년 전 우주가 대폭발(빅뱅)할 때 태어났다 바로 사라진 입자를 말한다. 표준모형에서 우주를 이루는 기본 입자에 질량을 부여하는 역할을 해 '신의 입자'란 별칭이 붙었다. 그동안 가설로만 존재하다 이번에 처음으로 발견됐다. 힉스 입자란 이름은 한국 과학자 고(故) 이휘소 박사가 물리학자 피터 힉스의 이름을 따서 지었다. 중앙일보

 

:: 힉스 입자(Higgs boson)란 ::

영국의 이론물리학자 피터 힉스가 주장한 것으로 그의 이름을 따서 명명됐다. 무겁고 스핀이 없으며 전자 등 다른 입자와 상호 작용해 질량을 부여하는 역활을 한다. 뉴턴이 수학적 방법으로 물리학을 기술하기 시작한 후 물리학자들이 알아낸 가장 중요한 자연의 비밀중 하나가 바로 "겉보기에 전혀 상관없을 것 같은 물리 현상의 이면에 깊은 연관이 있고 결국 단순하고 통일된 방식으로 자연이 작동하고 있다"는 것이였는데, 힉스 입자는 특히 전자기력과 약한 핵력(방사성 붕괴, 별이 빛나는 이유와 관련된 힘)이 태초에는 동일한 힘이다가 어느 순간 서로 다른 힘으로 분화하게 되는데 결정적인 역할을 했다고 물리학자들은 생각하고 있다. 힉스 입자는 지난 300여년 이상 인간이 자연을 이해하는 방식 - 보다 단순한 원리로 부터 많은 현상을 이해하고, 설명하고, 이용하는 그 방식-이 여전히 유효하며, 성공적이라는 것을 보여줄 매우 중요한 단서될 것으로 평가된다.  힉스는 입자들 사이의 상호작용을 설명하는 근거가 되는 만큼 그 존재가 발견되면 20세기 현대 물리학 이론이 완성된다. 출처:힉스 입자가 발견되면 좋은게 뭘까?

 

2011.12.09 (13:06:35)
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Higgs boson
CMS Higgs-event.jpg
A simulated event, featuring the appearance of the Higgs boson
Composition Elementary particle
Statistics Bosonic
Status Hypothetical
Theorized F. Englert, R. Brout, P. Higgs, G. S. Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, and T. W. B. Kibble (1964)
Discovered Not yet (as of December 2011); searches ongoing at the LHC
Types 1, according to the Standard Model;
5 or more, according to supersymmetric models
Mass 115–185 GeV/c2 (model-dependent upper bound[Note 1])
Spin 0

The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive elementary particle that is predicted to exist by the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Its existence is postulated as a means of resolving inconsistencies in the Standard Model. Experiments attempting to find the particle are currently being performed using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and were performed at Fermilab's Tevatron until Tevatron's closure in late 2011. Recently the BBC reported that the boson will possibly be considered as "discoverable" in December 2011, although more experimental data is still needed to make that final claim.[1][2][3]

The Higgs boson is the only elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model that has not been observed in particle physics experiments. It is an integral part of the Higgs mechanism, the part of the SM which explains how most of the known elementary particles obtain their mass.[Note 2] For example, the Higgs mechanism would explain why the W and Z bosons, which mediate weak interactions, are massive whereas the related photon, which mediates electromagnetism, is massless. The Higgs boson is expected to be in a class of particles known as scalar bosons. (Bosons are particles with integer spin, and scalar bosons have spin 0.)

Theories that do not need the Higgs boson are described as Higgsless models. Some theories suggest that any mechanism capable of generating the masses of the elementary particles must be visible at energies below 1.4 TeV;[4] therefore, the LHC is expected to be able to provide experimental evidence of the existence or non-existence of the Higgs boson.[5]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Origin of the theory

220px-AIP-Sakurai-best.JPG
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Five of the six 2010 APS J.J. Sakurai Prize winners. From left to right: Kibble, Guralnik, Hagen, Englert, and Brout.
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No. six: Peter Higgs 2009

The Higgs mechanism is a process by which vector bosons can get a mass. It was proposed in 1964 independently and almost simultaneously by three groups of physicists: François Englert and Robert Brout;[6] by Peter Higgs[7] (inspired by ideas of Philip Anderson[8]); and by Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, and Tom Kibble.[9]

The three papers written on this discovery were each recognized as milestone papers during Physical Review Letters's 50th anniversary celebration.[10] While each of these famous papers took similar approaches, the contributions and differences between the 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers are noteworthy. These six physicists were also awarded the 2010 J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics for this work.[11]

The 1964 PRL papers by Higgs and by Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble (GHK) both displayed equations for the field that would eventually become known as the Higgs boson. In the paper by Higgs the boson is massive, and in a closing sentence Higgs writes that "an essential feature" of the theory "is the prediction of incomplete multiplets of scalar and vector bosons". In the model described in the GHK paper the boson is massless and decoupled from the massive states. In recent reviews of the topic, Guralnik states that in the GHK model the boson is massless only in a lowest-order approximation, but it is not subject to any constraint and it acquires mass at higher orders. Additionally, he states that the GHK paper was the only one to show that there are no massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons in the model and to give a complete analysis of the general Higgs mechanism. [12][13] Following the publication of the 1964 PRL papers, the properties of the model were further discussed by Guralnik in 1965 and by Higgs in 1966.[14][15]

Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam were the first to apply the Higgs mechanism to the electroweak symmetry breaking. The Higgs mechanism not only explains how the electroweak vector bosons get a mass, but predicts the ratio between the W boson and Z boson masses as well as their couplings with each other and with the Standard Model quarks and leptons. Many of these predictions have been verified by precise measurements performed at the LEP and the SLC colliders, thus confirming that the Higgs mechanism takes place in nature.[16]

The Higgs boson's existence is not a strictly necessary consequence of the Higgs mechanism: the Higgs boson exists in some but not all theories which use the Higgs mechanism. For example, the Higgs boson exists in the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model yet is not expected to exist in Higgsless models, such as Technicolor. A goal of the LHC and Tevatron experiments is to distinguish among these models and determine if the Higgs boson exists or not.

[edit] Theoretical overview

200px-One-loop-diagram.svg.png
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A one-loop Feynman diagram of the first-order correction to the Higgs mass. The Higgs boson couples strongly to the top quark so it might decay into top–anti-top quark pairs if it were heavy enough.

The Higgs boson particle is the quantum of the theoretical Higgs field. In empty space, the Higgs field has an amplitude different from zero; i.e. a non-zero vacuum expectation value. The existence of this non-zero vacuum expectation plays a fundamental role; it gives mass to every elementary particle that couples to the Higgs field, including the Higgs boson itself. The acquisition of a non-zero vacuum expectation value spontaneously breaks electroweak gauge symmetry. This is the Higgs mechanism, which is the simplest process capable of giving mass to the gauge bosons while remaining compatible with gauge theories. This field is analogous to a pool of molasses that "sticks" to the otherwise massless fundamental particles that travel through the field, converting them into particles with mass that form (for example) the components of atoms.

In the Standard Model, the Higgs field consists of two neutral and two charged component fields. Both of the charged components and one of the neutral fields are Goldstone bosons, which act as the longitudinal third-polarization components of the massive W+, W, and Z bosons. The quantum of the remaining neutral component corresponds to the massive Higgs boson. Since the Higgs field is a scalar field, the Higgs boson has no spin, hence no intrinsic angular momentum. The Higgs boson is also its own antiparticle and is CP-even.

The Standard Model does not predict the mass of the Higgs boson. If that mass is between 115 and 180 GeV/c2, then the Standard Model can be valid at energy scales all the way up to the Planck scale (1016 TeV). Many theorists expect new physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge at the TeV-scale, based on unsatisfactory properties of the Standard Model. The highest possible mass scale allowed for the Higgs boson (or some other electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism) is 1.4 TeV; beyond this point, the Standard Model becomes inconsistent without such a mechanism, because unitarity is violated in certain scattering processes. There are over a hundred theoretical Higgs-mass predictions.[17]

Extensions to the Standard Model including supersymmetry (SUSY) predict the existence of families of Higgs bosons, rather than the one Higgs particle of the Standard Model. Among the SUSY models, in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) the Higgs mechanism yields the smallest number of Higgs bosons: there are two Higgs doublets, leading to the existence of a quintet of scalar particles, two CP-even neutral Higgs bosons h and H, a CP-odd neutral Higgs boson A, and two charged Higgs particles H±. Many supersymmetric models predict that the lightest Higgs boson will have a mass only slightly above the current experimental limits, at around 120 GeV/c2 or less.

[edit] Experimental search

500px-Higgs-Boson-March-2011.png
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Status as of March 2011, to the indicated confidence intervals
200px-Gluon-top-higgs.svg.png
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A Feynman diagram of one way the Higgs boson may be produced at the LHC. Here, two gluons convert to two top/anti-top pairs, which then combine to make a neutral Higgs.
200px-BosonFusion-Higgs.svg.png
magnify-clip.png
A Feynman diagram of another way the Higgs boson may be produced at the LHC. Here, two quarks each emit a W or Z boson, which combine to make a neutral Higgs.

As of November 2011, the Higgs boson has yet to be confirmed experimentally,[18] despite large efforts invested in accelerator experiments at CERN and Fermilab.

Prior to the year 2000, the data gathered at the LEP collider at CERN allowed an experimental lower bound to be set for the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson of 114.4 GeV/c2 at the 95% confidence level. The same experiment has produced a small number of events that could be interpreted as resulting from Higgs bosons with a mass just above this cut off — around 115 GeV—but the number of events was insufficient to draw definite conclusions.[19] The LEP was shut down in 2000 due to construction of its successor, the LHC, which is expected to be able to confirm or reject the existence of the Higgs boson. Full operational mode was delayed until mid-November 2009, because of a serious fault discovered with a number of magnets during the calibration and startup phase.[20][21]

At the Fermilab Tevatron, there are ongoing experiments searching for the Higgs boson. As of July 2010, combined data from CDF and experiments at the Tevatron were sufficient to exclude the Higgs boson in the range 158 GeV/c2 - 175 GeV/c2 at the 95% confidence level.[22][23] Preliminary results as of July 2011 have since extended the excluded region to the range 156 GeV/c2 - 177 GeV/c2 at the 90% confidence level.[24] Data collection and analysis in search of Higgs are intensifying since March 30, 2010 when the LHC began operating at 3.5 TeV.[25] Preliminary results from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC as of July 2011 exclude a Standard Model Higgs boson in the mass range 155 GeV/c2 - 190 GeV/c2[26] and 149 GeV/c2 - 206 GeV/c2,[27] respectively, at the 95% confidence level.

It may be possible to estimate the mass of the Higgs boson indirectly. In the Standard Model, the Higgs boson has a number of indirect effects; most notably, Higgs loops result in tiny corrections to masses of W and Z bosons. Precision measurements of electroweak parameters, such as the Fermi constant and masses of W/Z bosons, can be used to constrain the mass of the Higgs. As of 2006, measurements of electroweak observables allowed the exclusion of a Standard Model Higgs boson having a mass greater than 285 GeV/c2 at 95% CL, and estimated its mass to be 129+74
−49
GeV/c2
(the central value corresponding to approximately 138 proton masses).[28] As of August 2009, the Standard Model Higgs boson is excluded by electroweak measurements above 186 GeV at the 95% confidence level. However, it should be noted that these indirect constraints make the assumption that the Standard Model is correct. It may still be possible to discover a Higgs boson above 186 GeV if it is accompanied by other particles between the Standard Model and GUT scales.

In a 2009 preprint,[29][30] it was suggested that the Higgs boson might not only interact with the above-mentioned particles of the Standard model of particle physics, but also with the mysterious weakly interacting massive particles (or WIMPS) that may form dark matter, and which play an important role in recent astrophysics.

Various reports of potential evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson have appeared in recent years[31][32][33] but to date none have provided convincing evidence. In April 2011, there were suggestions in the media that evidence for the Higgs boson might have been discovered at the LHC in Geneva, Switzerland[34] but these had been debunked by mid May.[35] In regard to these rumors Jon Butterworth, a member of the High Energy Physics group on the Atlas experiment, stated they were not a hoax, but were based on unofficial, unreviewed results.[36] The LHC detected possible signs of the particle, which were reported in July 2011, the ATLAS Note concluding: "In the low mass range (c 120−140 GeV) an excess of events with a significance of approximately 2.8 sigma above the background expectation is observed" and the BBC reporting that "interesting particle events at a mass of between 140 and 145 GeV" were found.[37][38] These findings were repeated shortly thereafter by researchers at the Tevatron with a spokesman stating that: "There are some intriguing things going on around a mass of 140GeV."[37] However, on 22 August it was reported that the anomalous results had become insignificant on the inclusion of more data from ATLAS and CMS and that the non-existence of the particle had been confirmed by LHC collisions to 95% certainty between 145–466 GeV (except for a few small islands around 250 GeV).[39] A combined analysis of ATLAS and CMS data, published in November 2011, further narrowed the window for the allowed values of the Higgs boson mass to 114-141 GeV.[40]

[edit] Alternatives for electroweak symmetry breaking

In the years since the Higgs boson was proposed, several alternatives to the Higgs mechanism have been proposed. All of these proposed mechanisms use strongly interacting dynamics to produce a vacuum expectation value that breaks electroweak symmetry. A partial list of these alternative mechanisms are:

[edit] "The God particle"

The Higgs boson is often referred to as "the God particle" by the media,[47] after the title of Leon Lederman's book, The God Particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question?[48] Lederman initially wanted to call it the "goddamn particle," but his editor would not let him.[49] While use of this term may have contributed to increased media interest in particle physics and the Large Hadron Collider,[48] many scientists dislike it, since it overstates the particle's importance, not least since its discovery would still leave unanswered questions about the unification of QCD, the electroweak interaction and gravity, and the ultimate origin of the universe.[47] A renaming competition conducted by the science correspondent for the British Guardian newspaper chose the name "the champagne bottle boson" as the best from among their submissions: "The bottom of a champagne bottle is in the shape of the Higgs potential and is often used as an illustration in physics lectures. So it's not an embarrassingly grandiose name, it is memorable, and [it] has some physics connection too."[50]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ This upper bound for the Higgs boson mass is a prediction within the minimal Standard Model assuming that it remains a consistent theory up to the Planck scale. In extensions of the SM, this bound can be loosened or, in the case of supersymmetry theories, lowered. The lower bound which results from direct experimental exclusion by LEP is valid for most extensions of the SM, but can be circumvented in special cases. [1]
  2. ^ The masses of composite particles such as the proton and neutron would only be partly due to the Higgs mechanism, and are already understood as a consequence of the strong interaction.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Cern scientist expects 'first glimpse' of Higgs boson". BBC. 2011-12-7. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-16074411. Retrieved 2011-12-8.
  2. ^ "'Moment of truth' approaching in Higgs boson hunt". BBC. 2011-12-1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15991392. Retrieved 2011-12-8.
  3. ^ "Higgs particle could be found by Christmas". BBC. 2011-9-1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14731690. Retrieved 2011-9-1.
  4. ^ Lee, Benjamin W.; Quigg, C.; Thacker, H. B. (1977). "Weak interactions at very high energies: The role of the Higgs-boson mass". Physical Review D 16 (5): 1519–1531. Bibcode 1977PhRvD..16.1519L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.16.1519.
  5. ^ "Huge $10 billion collider resumes hunt for 'God particle' - CNN.com". CNN. 2009-11-11. http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/11/11/lhc.large.hadron.collider.beam/index.html. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
  6. ^ Englert, François; Brout, Robert (1964). "Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons". Physical Review Letters 13 (9): 321–23. Bibcode 1964PhRvL..13..321E. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.321.
  7. ^ Higgs, Peter (1964). "Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons". Physical Review Letters 13 (16): 508–509. Bibcode 1964PhRvL..13..508H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.508.
  8. ^ Ph. Anderson: "Plasmons, gauge invariance and mass." In: Physical Review. 130, 1963, p. 439–442
  9. ^ Guralnik, Gerald; Hagen, C. R.; Kibble, T. W. B. (1964). "Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles". Physical Review Letters 13 (20): 585–587. Bibcode 1964PhRvL..13..585G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.585.
  10. ^ Physical Review Letters - 50th Anniversary Milestone Papers. Physical Review Letters. http://prl.aps.org/50years/milestones#1964.
  11. ^ "American Physical Society - J. J. Sakurai Prize Winners". http://www.aps.org/units/dpf/awards/sakurai.cfm.
  12. ^ G.S. Guralnik (2009). "The History of the Guralnik, Hagen and Kibble development of the Theory of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Gauge Particles". International Journal of Modern Physics A 24 (14): 2601–2627. arXiv:0907.3466. Bibcode 2009IJMPA..24.2601G. doi:10.1142/S0217751X09045431.
  13. ^ "Guralnik, G.S. The Beginnings of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Particle Physics. Proceedings of the DPF-2011 Conference, Providence, RI, August 8–13, 2011". Arxiv.org. 2011-10-11. http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.2253v1. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
  14. ^ G.S. Guralnik (2011). "GAUGE INVARIANCE AND THE GOLDSTONE THEOREM - 1965 Feldafing talk". Modern Physics Letters A 26 (19): 1381–1392. arXiv:1107.4592v1. Bibcode 2011MPLA...26.1381G. doi:10.1142/S0217732311036188.
  15. ^ Higgs, Peter (1966). "Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown without Massless Bosons". Physical Review 145 (4): 1156–1163. Bibcode 1966PhRv..145.1156H. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.145.1156.
  16. ^ "LEP Electroweak Working Group". http://lepewwg.web.cern.ch/LEPEWWG/.
  17. ^ T. Schücker (2007). "Higgs-mass predictions". arXiv:0708.3344 [hep-ph].
  18. ^ Scientists present first “bread-and-butter” results from LHC collisions Symmetry Breaking, 8 June 2010
  19. ^ W.-M. Yao et al. (2006). Searches for Higgs Bosons "Review of Particle Physics". Journal of Physics G 33: 1. arXiv:astro-ph/0601168. Bibcode 2006JPhG...33....1Y. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2006/reviews/higgs_s055.pdf Searches for Higgs Bosons.
  20. ^ "CERN management confirms new LHC restart schedule". CERN Press Office. 9 February 2009. http://press.web.cern.ch/press/PressReleases/Releases2009/PR02.09E.html. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
  21. ^ "CERN reports on progress towards LHC restart". CERN Press Office. 19 June 2009. http://press.web.cern.ch/press/PressReleases/Releases2009/PR09.09E.html. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  22. ^ T. Aaltonen et al. (CDF and DØ Collaborations) (2010). "Combination of Tevatron searches for the standard model Higgs boson in the W+W decay mode". Physical Review Letters 104 (6). arXiv:1001.4162. Bibcode 2010PhRvL.104f1802A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.061802.
  23. ^ "Fermilab experiments narrow allowed mass range for Higgs boson". Fermilab. 26 July 2010. http://www.fnal.gov/pub/presspass/press_releases/Higgs-mass-constraints-20100726-images.html. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  24. ^ The CDF & D0 Collaborations (27 July 2011). "Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs Boson Production with up to 8.6 fb-1 of Data". arXiv:1107.5518 [hep-ex].
  25. ^ "''CERN Bulletin'' Issue No. 18-20/2010 - Monday 3 May 2010". Cdsweb.cern.ch. 2010-05-03. http://cdsweb.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2010/18/News%20Articles/1262593?ln=en. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
  26. ^ "Combined Standard Model Higgs Boson Searches in pp Collisions at root-s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC". 24 July 2011. ATLAS-CONF-2011-112. https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2011-112/.
  27. ^ "Search for standard model Higgs boson in pp collisions at sqrt{s}=7 TeV". 23 July 2011. CMS-PAS-HIG-11-011. http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1370076/.
  28. ^ "H0 Indirect Mass Limits from Electroweak Analysis."
  29. ^ C. B. Jackson; Geraldine Servant; Gabe Shaughnessy; Tim M. P. Tait; Marco Taoso (2009). "Higgs in Space!". arXiv:0912.0004 [hep-ph].
  30. ^ Physics World, "Higgs could reveal itself in Dark-Matter collisions. British Institute of Physics. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  31. ^ Potential Higgs Boson discovery: "Higgs Boson: Glimpses of the God particle." New Scientist, 02 March 2007
  32. ^ "'God particle' may have been seen," BBC news, 10 March 2004.
  33. ^ US experiment hints at 'multiple God particles' BBC News 14 June 2010
  34. ^ "Mass hysteria! Science world buzzing over rumours the elusive 'God Particle' has finally been found- dailymail.co.uk". Mail Online. 2011-04-24. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1379844/Science-world-buzzing-rumours-elusive-God-particle-found.html. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
  35. ^ The Collider That Cried Higgs Nature 473, 136-137 (2011)
  36. ^ Butterworth, Jon (2011-04-24). "The Guardian, "Rumours of the Higgs at ATLAS"". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/life-and-physics/2011/apr/24/1?CMP=twt_fd. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
  37. ^ a b Rincon, Paul (24 July 2011) "Higgs boson 'hints' also seen by US lab" BBC News. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  38. ^ "Combined Standard Model Higgs Boson Searches in pp Collisions at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC" ATLAS Note (24 July 2011) (pdf) The ATLAS Collaboration. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  39. ^ Ghosh, Pallab (2011-08-22). "BBC News - Higgs boson range narrows at European collider". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14596367. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  40. ^ Geoff Brumfiel (2011-11-18). "Higgs hunt enters endgame". Nature News. http://www.nature.com/news/higgs-hunt-enters-endgame-1.9399. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
  41. ^ S. Dimopoulos and Leonard Susskind (1979). "Mass Without Scalars". Nuclear Physics B 155: 237–252. Bibcode 1979NuPhB.155..237D. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(79)90364-X.
  42. ^ C. Csaki and C. Grojean and L. Pilo and J. Terning (2004). "Towards a realistic model of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking". Physical Review Letters 92 (10): 101802. arXiv:hep-ph/0308038. Bibcode 2004PhRvL..92j1802C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.101802. PMID 15089195.
  43. ^ L. F. Abbott and E. Farhi (1981). "Are the Weak Interactions Strong?". Physics Letters B 101: 69. Bibcode 1981PhLB..101...69A. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(81)90492-5.
  44. ^ Bilson-Thompson, Sundance O.; Markopoulou, Fotini; Smolin, Lee (2007). "Quantum gravity and the standard model". Class. Quantum Grav. 24 (16): 3975–3993. arXiv:hep-th/0603022. Bibcode 2007CQGra..24.3975B. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/24/16/002.
  45. ^ K. G. Zloshchastiev, Spontaneous symmetry breaking and mass generation as built-in phenomena in logarithmic nonlinear quantum theory, Acta Phys. Polon. B 42 (2011) 261-292 ArXiv:0912.4139.
  46. ^ A. V. Avdeenkov and K. G. Zloshchastiev, Quantum Bose liquids with logarithmic nonlinearity: Self-sustainability and emergence of spatial extent, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44 (2011) 195303. ArXiv:1108.0847.
  47. ^ a b Ian Sample (29 May 2009). "Anything but the God particle". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/may/29/why-call-it-the-god-particle-higgs-boson-cern-lhc. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
  48. ^ a b Ian Sample (3 March 2009). "Father of the God particle: Portrait of Peter Higgs unveiled". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/mar/02/god-particle-peter-higgs-portrait-lhc. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
  49. ^ Randerson, James (June 30, 2008). "Father of the 'God Particle'". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/jun/30/higgs.boson.cern.
  50. ^ Ian Sample (12 June 2009). "Higgs competition: Crack open the bubbly, the God particle is dead". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/jun/05/cern-lhc-god-particle-higgs-boson. Retrieved 2010-05-04.

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

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Coordinates: 17px-WMA_button2b.png46°14′03″N 6°03′10″E / 46.23417°N 6.05278°E / 46.23417; 6.05278

European Organization
for Nuclear Research
Organisation européenne
pour la recherche nucléaire
200px-CERN_logo.svg.png
250px-CERN_member_states.svg.png
Member states
Formation 29 September 1954[1]
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Membership 21 member states and 7 observers
Director General Rolf-Dieter Heuer
Website cern.ch
220px-Cernfounders.png
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The 12 founding member states of CERN in 1954 a[›] (map borders from 1989)
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54 years after its foundation, membership to CERN increased to 20 states, 18 of which are also EU members as of 2010

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (play /ˈsɜrn/; French pronunciation: [sɛʁn]; see History), is an international organization whose purpose is to operate the world's largest particle physics laboratory, which is situated in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border (17px-WMA_button2b.png46°14′3″N 6°3′19″E / 46.23417°N 6.05528°E / 46.23417; 6.05528). Established in 1954, the organization has twenty European member states.

The term CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory itself, which employs just under 2400 full-time employees/workers, as well as some 7931 scientists and engineers representing 608 universities and research facilities and 113 nationalities.

CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN by international collaborations to make use of them. It is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web. The main site at Meyrin also has a large computer centre containing very powerful data-processing facilities primarily for experimental data analysis and, because of the need to make them available to researchers elsewhere, has historically been a major wide area networking hub.

The CERN sites, as an international facility, are officially under neither Swiss nor French jurisdiction. Member states' contributions to CERN for the year 2008 totaled CHF 1 billion (approximately € 664 million).[citation needed]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] History

The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe.a[›][1] The acronym CERN originally stood, in French, for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for setting up the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954.[2] According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed the acronym could have become the awkward OERN, and Heisenberg said that the acronym could "still be CERN even if the name is [not]".[citation needed]

Soon after its establishment the work at the laboratory went beyond the study of the atomic nucleus into higher-energy physics, which is mainly concerned with the study of interactions between particles. Therefore the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules) which better describes the research being performed at CERN.

[edit] Scientific achievements

Several important achievements in particle physics have been made during experiments at CERN. They include:

The 1984 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that led to the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The 1992 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber."

[edit] Computer science

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This NeXT Computer used by British scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN became the first Web server.

The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990.[9] Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honored by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.

Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was aimed at facilitating sharing information among researchers. The first website went on-line in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy[10] of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium's website as a historical document.

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This Cisco Systems router at CERN was probably one of the first IP routers deployed in Europe.

Prior to the Web's development, CERN had been a pioneer in the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s. A short history of this period can be found at CERN.ch.[11]

More recently, CERN has become a centre for the development of grid computing, hosting among others the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computing Grid projects. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main Internet Exchange Points in Switzerland.

[edit] OPERA neutrino anomaly

On September 22, 2011, a paper[12] from the OPERA Collaboration indicated detection of 17-GeV and 28-GeV muon neutrinos, sent 730 kilometers (454 miles) from CERN near Geneva, Switzerland to the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, traveling faster than light by a factor of 2.48×10−5 (approximately 1 in 40,322.58), a statistic with 6.0-sigma significance.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

[edit] Particle accelerators

[edit] Current complex

220px-Cern-accelerator-complex.svg.png
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Map of the CERN accelerator complex
220px-Location_Large_Hadron_Collider.PNG
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Map of the Large Hadron Collider together with the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN

CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently active machines are:

  • Two linear accelerators generate low energy particles. Linac2 accelerates protons to 50 MeV for injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), and Linac3 provides heavy ions at 4.2 MeV/u for injection into the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR).[21]
  • The Proton Synchrotron Booster increases the energy of particles generated by the proton linear accelerator before they are transferred to the other accelerators.
  • The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerates the ions from the ion linear accelerator, before transferring them to the Proton Synchrotron (PS). This accelerator was commissioned in 2005, after having been reconfigured from the previous Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR).
  • The 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), built in 1959 and still operating as a feeder to the more powerful SPS.
  • The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), a circular accelerator with a diameter of 2 kilometres built in a tunnel, which started operation in 1976. It was designed to deliver an energy of 300 GeV and was gradually upgraded to 450 GeV. As well as having its own beamlines for fixed-target experiments (currently COMPASS and NA62), it has been operated as a protonantiproton collider (the SppS collider), and for accelerating high energy electrons and positrons which were injected into the Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP). Since 2008, it has been used to inject protons and heavy ions into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
  • The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), which is used to study unstable nuclei. The radioactive ions are produced by the impact of protons at an energy of 1.0–1.4 GeV from the Proton Synchrotron Booster. It was first commissioned in 1967 and was rebuilt with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992.
  • REX-ISOLDE increases the charge states of ions coming from the ISOLDE targets, and accelerates them to a maximum energy of 3 MeV/u.
  • The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which reduces the velocity of antiprotons to about 10% of the speed of light for research into antimatter.
  • The Compact Linear Collider Test Facility, which studies feasibility issues for the future normal conducting linear collider project.

[edit] The Large Hadron Collider

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Construction of the CMS detector for LHC at CERN

Most of the activities at CERN are currently directed towards operating the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project.

The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva airport and the nearby Jura mountains. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP which was closed down in November 2000. CERN's existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes will be used to pre-accelerate protons which will then be injected into the LHC.

Seven experiments (CMS, ATLAS, LHCb, MoEDAL[22] TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE) will run on the collider; each of them will study particle collisions from a different point of view, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. Just as an example, a special crane had to be rented from Belgium in order to lower pieces of the CMS detector into its underground cavern, since each piece weighed nearly 2,000 tons. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005.

This accelerator has begun to generate vast quantities of data, which CERN streams to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (making use of a specialised grid infrastructure, the LHC Computing Grid). In April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB/s to seven different sites across the world. If all the data generated by the LHC is to be analysed, then scientists must achieve 1,800 MB/s before 2008.

The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008.[23] The first attempt to circulate a beam through the entire LHC was at 8:28 GMT on 10 September 2008,[24] but the system failed because of a faulty magnet connection, and it was stopped for repairs on 19 September 2008.

The LHC resumed its operation on Friday the 20 November 2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an energy of 3.5 trillion electron volts. The challenge that the engineers then faced was to try and line up the two beams so that they smashed into each other. This is like "firing two needles across the Atlantic and getting them to hit each other" according to the LHC's main engineer Steve Myers, director for accelerators and technology at the Swiss laboratory.

At 1200 BST on Tuesday 30 March 2010 the LHC successfully smashed two proton particle beams travelling with 3.5 TeV (trillion electron volts) of energy, resulting in a 7 TeV event. However this is just the start of a long road toward the expected discovery of the Higgs boson. This is mainly because the amount of data produced is so huge it could take up to 24 months to completely analyse it all. At the end of the 7 TeV experimental period, the LHC will be shut down for maintenance for up to a year, with the main purpose of this shut down being to strengthen the huge magnets inside the accelerator. When it re-opens, it will attempt to create 14 TeV events.

[edit] Decommissioned accelerators

[edit] Sites

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CERN's main site, as seen from Switzerland looking towards France.
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Interior of office building 40 at the Meyrin site. Building 40 hosts many offices for scientists working for CMS and Atlas.

The smaller accelerators are located on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and so there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. There are six entrances to the Meyrin site:

  • A, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel at specific times.
  • B, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel at all times. Often referred to as the main entrance.
  • C, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel at specific times.
  • D, in Switzerland. Open for goods reception at specific times.
  • E, in France. Open for French-resident CERN personnel at specific times. Controlled by customs personnel. Named "Porte Charles de Gaulle" in recognition of his role in the creation of the CERN.[25]
  • Tunnel entrance, in France. Open for equipment transfer to and from CERN sites in France by personnel with a specific permit. This is the only permitted route for such transfers. Under the CERN treaty, no taxes are payable when such transfers are made. Controlled by customs personnel.

The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are located underground almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments themselves are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites.

Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter which will be used for LHC experiments).

Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of charmed particles and located at the Prévessin (North Area) site while WA22 used the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator.

[edit] Financing (Budget 2009)

Member state Contribution Mil. CHF Mil. EUR
22px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png Germany 19.88 % 218.6 144.0
22px-Flag_of_France.svg.png France 15.34 % 168.7 111.2
22px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png United Kingdom 14.70 % 161.6 106.5
22px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png Italy 11.51 % 156.5 93.4
22px-Flag_of_Spain.svg.png Spain 8.52 % 93.7 61.8
22px-Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg.png Netherlands 4.79 % 52.7 34.7
20px-Flag_of_Switzerland.svg.png Switzerland 3.01 % 33.1 21.8
22px-Flag_of_Poland.svg.png Poland 2.85 % 31.4 20.7
22px-Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg.png Belgium 2.77 % 30.4 20.1
22px-Flag_of_Sweden.svg.png Sweden 2.76 % 30.4 20.0
22px-Flag_of_Norway.svg.png Norway 2.53 % 27.8 18.3
22px-Flag_of_Austria.svg.png Austria 2.24 % 24.7 16.3
22px-Flag_of_Greece.svg.png Greece 1.96 % 20.5 13.5
22px-Flag_of_Denmark.svg.png Denmark 1.76 % 19.4 12.8
22px-Flag_of_Finland.svg.png Finland 1.55 % 17.0 11.2
22px-Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg.png Czech Republic 1.15 % 12.7 8.4
22px-Flag_of_Portugal.svg.png Portugal 1.14 % 12.5 8.2
22px-Flag_of_Hungary.svg.png Hungary 0.78 % 8.6 5.6
22px-Flag_of_Slovakia.svg.png Slovakia 0.54 % 5.9 3.9
22px-Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg.png Bulgaria 0.22 % 2.4 1.6
Total 100 % 1098.6 724.0

Exchange rates: 1 CHF = 0,829 EUR (19 Sep 2011)

[edit] Member states

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Member states of CERN as of 2008
Founding members
Members who joined CERN later
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Animated map showing changes in CERN membership from 1954 until 1999 (borders as of 1989 and 2008)
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CERN members (in blue) and observers (in red: USA, Israel, Turkey, Japan, India, and Russia) as of 2008
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CERN: where the Web was born[26]

The original twelve CERN signatories from 1954 were:

  • 22px-Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg.png Belgium
  • 22px-Flag_of_Denmark.svg.png Denmark
  • 22px-Flag_of_France.svg.png France
  • 22px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png Germany (at first only West Germany)
  • 22px-Flag_of_Greece.svg.png Greece
  • 22px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png Italy
  • 22px-Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg.png Netherlands
  • 22px-Flag_of_Norway.svg.png Norway
  • 22px-Flag_of_Sweden.svg.png Sweden
  • 20px-Flag_of_Switzerland.svg.png Switzerland
  • 22px-Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg.png United Kingdom
  • 22px-Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia.svg.png Yugoslavia (later withdrawn).

All founding members have so far (as of 2008) remained in the CERN organisation, except Yugoslavia which left in 1961 and never re-joined.

Since its foundation, CERN regularly accepted new members. All new members have remained in the organisation continuously since their acceptance, except Spain which joined in 1961, withdrew eight years later, and joined anew in 1983. CERN's membership history is as follows:

  • 22px-Flag_of_Austria.svg.png Austria joined in 1959, bringing the total number of members to thirteen.
  • 22px-Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia.svg.png Yugoslavia left in 1961 (twelve members)
  • 22px-Flag_of_Spain.svg.png Spain joined in 1961 (thus increasing the number of member states to 13 again), left in 1969 (twelve members), rejoined in 1983 (thirteen members)
  • 22px-Flag_of_Portugal.svg.png Portugal joined in 1985 (fourteen member states)
  • 22px-Flag_of_Finland.svg.png Finland joined in 1991
  • 22px-Flag_of_Poland.svg.png Poland joined in 1991 (together with Finland bringing the number of participating member states to sixteen)
  • 22px-Flag_of_Hungary.svg.png Hungary joined in 1992 (seventeen members)
  • 22px-Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg.png Czech Republic joined in 1993
  • 22px-Flag_of_Slovakia.svg.png Slovakia joined in 1993 (together with Czech Republic increasing the total members to nineteen)
  • 22px-Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg.png Bulgaria joined in 1999 (twenty member states)

There are currently twenty member countries, eighteen of which are also European Union member states.

  • 22px-Flag_of_Romania.svg.png Romania became a candidate for accession to CERN in 2010 and will become a member country in 2015.[27]
  • 22px-Flag_of_Israel.svg.png Israel became an associate member in 2011, with a decision to be made on its full membership in 2013. [28]

Four countries applying for membership have all formally confirmed their wish to become members.[29]

  • 22px-Flag_of_Cyprus.svg.png Cyprus since 14 February 2006 Non-Member State status
  • 22px-Flag_of_Serbia.svg.png Serbia since 8 June 2001 Non-Member State status
  • 22px-Flag_of_Slovenia.svg.png Slovenia since 7 January 1991 Non-Member State status
  • 22px-Flag_of_Turkey.svg.png Turkey since 1961 Observer State status

Five countries have observer status:[30]

  • 22px-Flag_of_Turkey.svg.png Turkey – since 1961
  • 22px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png Russia – since 1993
  • 22px-Flag_of_Japan.svg.png Japan – since 1995
  • 22px-Flag_of_the_United_States.svg.png United States – since 1997
  • 22px-Flag_of_India.svg.png India – since 2002

Also observers are the following international organizations:

Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agreements) currently involved in CERN programmes are:

  • 22px-Flag_of_Algeria.svg.png Algeria
  • 22px-Flag_of_Argentina.svg.png Argentina – 11 March 1992
  • 22px-Flag_of_Armenia.svg.png Armenia – 25 March 1994
  • 22px-Flag_of_Australia.svg.png Australia – 1 November 1991
  • 22px-Flag_of_Azerbaijan.svg.png Azerbaijan – 3 December 1997
  • 22px-Flag_of_Belarus.svg.png Belarus – 28 June 1994
  • 22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png Brazil – 19 February 1990 & October 2006
  • 22px-Flag_of_Canada.svg.png Canada – 11 October 1996
  • 22px-Flag_of_Chile.svg.png Chile – 10 October 1991
  • 22px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png China – 12 July 1991, 14 August 1997 & 17 February 2004
  • 22px-Flag_of_Colombia.svg.png Colombia – 15 May 1993
  • 22px-Flag_of_Croatia.svg.png Croatia – 18 July 1991
  • 22px-Flag_of_Cuba.svg.png Cuba
  • 22px-Flag_of_Cyprus.svg.png Cyprus – 14 February 2006
  • 22px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png Egypt – 16 January 2006
  • 22px-Flag_of_Estonia.svg.png Estonia – 23 April 1996
  • 22px-Flag_of_Georgia.svg.png Georgia – 11 October 1996
  • 22px-Flag_of_Iceland.svg.png Iceland – 11 September 1996
  • 22px-Flag_of_Iran.svg.png Iran – 5 July 2001
  • 22px-Flag_of_Ireland.svg.png Ireland
  • 22px-Flag_of_Lithuania.svg.png Lithuania – 9 November 2004
  • 22px-Flag_of_Macedonia.svg.png Macedonia – 27 April 2009[31]
  • 22px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.png Mexico – 20 February 1998
  • 22px-Flag_of_Montenegro.svg.png Montenegro – 12 October 1990
  • 22px-Flag_of_Morocco.svg.png Morocco – 14 April 1997
  • 22px-Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg.png New Zealand – 4 December 2003
  • 22px-Flag_of_Pakistan.svg.png Pakistan – 1 November 1994. The possibility of Pakistan becoming an Observer State has been raised on various occasions.
  • 22px-Flag_of_Peru.svg.png Peru – 23 February 1993
  • 22px-Flag_of_Romania.svg.png Romania – 1 October 1991. Since 12 December 2008 it has the Status of Candidate for Accession to Membership.
  • 22px-Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg.png Saudi Arabia – 21 January 2006
  • 22px-Flag_of_Serbia.svg.png Serbia – 8 June 2001. In 2008 it applied for accession to CERN as a Member State.[32] Since 19 December 2010 it has the Status of Candidate for Accession to Membership.[33]
  • 22px-Flag_of_Slovenia.svg.png Slovenia – 7 January 1991
  • 22px-Flag_of_South_Africa.svg.png South Africa – 4 July 1992
  • 22px-Flag_of_South_Korea.svg.png South Korea – 25 October 2006.
  • 22px-Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg.png Republic of China (Taiwan)
  • 22px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png Thailand
  • 22px-Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg.png United Arab Emirates – 18 January 2006
  • 22px-Flag_of_Ukraine.svg.png Ukraine – 2 April 1993
  • 22px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png Vietnam

[edit] Public exhibits

Facilities at CERN open to the public include:

[edit] In popular culture

  • CERN's Large Hadron Collider is the subject of a (scientifically accurate) rap video starring Katherine McAlpine with some of the facility's staff.[35][36]
  • CERN's is depicted in an episode of South Park (Season 13, Episode 6) called "Pinewood Derby". Randy Marsh, the father of one of the main characters, breaks into the "Hadron Particle Super Collider in Switzerland" and steals a "superconducting bending magnet created for use in tests with particle acceleration" to use in his son Stan's Pinewood Derby racer. Randy breaks into CERN dressed in disguise as Princess Leia from the Star Wars saga. The break-in is captured on surveillance tape which is then broadcast on the news.[37]
  • CERN is depicted in the visual novel (later adapted into an anime series) Steins;Gate under the name SERN. In the video game, SERN is a shadowy organization that has been researching time travel and attempts to use it to restructure and control the world in the near future.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b "CERN.ch". Public.web.cern.ch. http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/About/History54-en.html. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  2. ^ The CERN Name, on the CERN website.
  3. ^ "CERN.ch". Public.web.cern.ch. http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/About/History73-en.html. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  4. ^ "CERN.ch La". Public.web.cern.ch. http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/About/History83-en.html. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  5. ^ "CERN.ch". Public.web.cern.ch. http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/About/History95-en.html. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  6. ^ Fanti, V.; et al. (1998). "A new measurement of direct CP violation in two pion decays of the neutral kaon". Physics Letters B 465: 335. arXiv:hep-ex/9909022. Bibcode 1999PhLB..465..335F. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01030-8.
  7. ^ "Antihydrogen isolation". CNN. 18 November 2010. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/11/18/switzerland.cern.antimatter/?hpt=Mid.
  8. ^ Jonathan Amos [6 June 2011]BBC © 2011 Retrieved 2011-06-‎06
  9. ^ "CERN.ch". Public.web.cern.ch. http://public.web.cern.ch/Public/en/About/WebStory-en.html. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  10. ^ "W3.org". W3.org. http://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  11. ^ "CERN.ch". CERN.ch. http://www.cern.ch/ben/TCPHIST.html. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  12. ^ Adam; Agafonova; Aleksandrov; Altinok; Alvarez Sanchez; Aoki; Ariga; Ariga et al. (2011). "Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam". arXiv:1109.4897 [hep-ex].
  13. ^ Adrian Cho, Neutrinos Travel Faster Than Light, According to One Experiment, Science NOW, 22 September 2011.
  14. ^ Palmer, Jason (23 September 2011). "BBC News - Speed-of-light results under scrutiny at Cern". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15017484. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  15. ^ Ian Sample, Faster than light particles found, claim scientists, The Guardian, 22 September 2011.
  16. ^ Chivers, Tom (23 September 2011). "Faster than light? Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence – Telegraph Blogs". London: Blogs.telegraph.co.uk. http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/tomchiversscience/100106792/faster-than-light-extraordinary-claims-require-extraordinary-evidence/. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  17. ^ Ben P. Stein, Physicists Report Evidence of a Quicker-Than-Light Particle , Inside Science News, 23 September 2011.
  18. ^ Evans, Robert (23 September 2011). "Faster than light particles may be physics revolution". Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/09/23/uk-science-light-idUKTRE78M30M20110923. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  19. ^ Researchers catch 'faster-than-light' particles | Emerging Tech | ZDNet UK[1]
  20. ^ "Theory of No Limit of Speed a possible reason". Cosmoscientists.com. http://www.cosmoscientists.com/nlst.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
  21. ^ "CERN Website – LINAC". Linac2.home.cern.ch. http://linac2.home.cern.ch/linac2/default.htm. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  22. ^ CERN Courier, "MoEDAL becomes the LHC's magnificent seventh", 5 May 2010
  23. ^ Overbye, Dennis (29 July 2008). "Let the Proton Smashing Begin. (The Rap Is Already Written.)". The New York Times.
  24. ^ "CERN press release, 7 August 2008". Press.web.cern.ch. 7 August 2008. http://press.web.cern.ch/press/PressReleases/Releases2008/PR06.08E.html. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  25. ^ "Red Carpet for CERN's 50th". CERN bulletin. November 2004. http://bulletin.cern.ch/eng/articles.php?bullno=45/2004&base=art.
  26. ^ Plaque #2196 on Open Plaques.
  27. ^ Andresen, G. B.; et al. (2010). "Trapped antihydrogen". Nature 468 (7324): 673–6. Bibcode 2010Natur.468..673A. doi:10.1038/nature09610. PMID 21085118.
  28. ^ "CERN Press Release". Public.web.cern.ch. 2011-09-16. http://public.web.cern.ch/press/pressreleases/Releases2011/PR18.11E.html. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
  29. ^ "24 June 2011: CERN - CERN Council looks forward to summer conferences and new members". Interactions.org. 2011-06-24. http://www.interactions.org/cms/?pid=1030850. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
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